[All About Exynos] ③ A Deeper Look at Modem, Connectivity and Security in Telecommunication – Samsung Global Newsroom



Supporting Quick, Clean Telecommunication Anyplace: The Extremely-Excessive Performing Modem with AI Expertise


The time period “modem” encompasses all sorts, from the dial-up modems used within the Nineteen Nineties to attach PCs to the Web, to wired communication modems like digital subscriber line (DSL) and cable, to wi-fi communication modems for mobile service and Wi-Fi. Nevertheless, after we discuss modems immediately within the cell business, the time period normally refers to mobile modems for wi-fi communication that help LTE and 5G.


In a smartphone, the terminal modem is in control of making calls and transmitting and receiving knowledge by exchanging indicators with base stations. The explanation we will make calls and seamlessly watch movies wherever is all because of high-performing mobile modems. Right now, the newest mobile modems help applied sciences from 2G to 5G. 


Mobile modems had been first used for 1G when solely cellphone calls might be made utilizing the analog communication technique. Within the 2G period, the digital communication technique1 was launched, and extra companies such because the quick message service (SMS) turned attainable. 3G enabled the usage of the Web on cell phones, laying the inspiration for cell broadband,2 and 4G ushered within the true cell broadband period that made seamlessly watching HD movies attainable. The pace of 5G, which Korea was first on the planet to commercialize in 2019, now reaches the 10Gbps stage, and numerous functions aside from cell gadgets are being created utilizing this low-latency and hyper-connectivity expertise. 


▲ A comparability of the traits of various cell communication generations.


With the appearance of the LTE period, knowledge transmission speeds have change into remarkably larger, and cell phones can now present features virtually similar to these offered by computer systems. Having experimented with growing its personal modem earlier than the 2000s, Samsung Electronics started growing an LTE modem chip in earnest in 2007 and have become the primary on the planet to achieve LTE modem commercialization in 2009, after mastering 2G and 3G applied sciences.


▲ The communication course of between a modem and a base station.


In 2012, the Galaxy S collection was outfitted with Samsung’s LTE modems for the primary time. In 2019, the 5G-integrated SoC Exynos, the primary ever chip to mix a 5G communication modem and a cell AP, was developed. Exynos improved vitality effectivity by combining two chips with completely different features into one in addition to the convenience of design for smartphone producers by lowering the world taken up by the part. At the moment, Exynos’ 5G3 modem helps not solely the sub-6GHz band but additionally extraordinarily excessive frequency bands (i.e., mmWave), resembling 28GHz and 39GHz. Due to this, sub-6GHz will increase service protection, and ultra-high-speed communication is obtainable with mmWave close to base stations. 


Right now, Samsung is without doubt one of the world’s prime three 5G modem design corporations. “Usually, the method for growing a modem is difficult as a result of it should help new expertise like 5G and already commercialized applied sciences like 3G and LTE. Because it additionally requires a big funding, there are solely a handful of modem chip corporations on the planet,” stated Vice President Jungwon Lee, a sign processing professional who presently leads the Modem Improvement Group within the System LSI Enterprise after working at Samsung DS America and at Samsung Analysis America. “It’s an space that additionally requires a variety of improvement time, from algorithm improvement to chip design, software program improvement and discipline testing.”


▲ Vice President Jungwon Lee (proper) and PL Huiwon Je (left) of the Modem Improvement Group try to enhance the event efficiency of mobile modems.


Samsung is conducting discipline checks in nations around the globe to enhance service protection as a lot as attainable and making numerous efforts to enhance the baseband sign processing technique, together with the usage of synthetic intelligence (AI) expertise to extend transmission speeds. Consequently, the corporate efficiently created a modem that makes use of AI algorithms final 12 months, though it’s but to be commercialized. “Modems with AI expertise can promote efficiency enhancements by minimizing the processing of interference indicators or rising vitality effectivity by way of the usage of AI processors,” stated Lee.


Along with 5G, Samsung is presently actively engaged on the event of 6G expertise. “Proper now, we’re targeted on growing the world’s greatest 5G modem and 5G-Superior modem, and we’re making ready for 6G modem expertise analysis in collaboration with Samsung DS America and Samsung Analysis for the approaching 6G period,” stated Lee. His achievements in modem sign processing expertise had been acknowledged when he was chosen as a Fellow of the IEEE.4


“6G modems are anticipated to allow 1Tbps-level speeds, help numerous communication networks together with satellite tv for pc communication, and be extensively utilized in numerous functions, resembling vehicles, IoT and AR/VR — going far past smartphones,” he stated. “To pave the way in which for the 6G period, we should have the backing and help of assorted frequency bands, together with the terahertz (THz) band, multi-antenna help for not less than a whole lot of antennas, superior AI expertise and communication community sign effectivity expertise.


In the meantime, Lee is main the way in which for Samsung as the corporate goals to create the most effective modem for Android. “We’re increasing our 5G enterprise within the quick run whereas striving to safe a number one place early on within the 6G period within the medium to long-term,” he stated. Samsung plans to drastically improve the headcount of the Modem Improvement Group to enhance such efficiency and to broaden associated enterprise markets. 



“I’m proud to be part of the event group of a significant international firm that leads modem expertise. On a extra private be aware, I discover it fascinating to see how what I realized from theories can truly be applied in lots of instances when utilized to merchandise,” stated Lee when requested why he was so drawn to modems. “Right now, having seamless phone conversations anytime and wherever and the high-speed web expertise have change into a basic a part of life. The factor that has allowed us to expertise this handy life is modems, and the Modem Improvement Group is captivated with persevering with to play its position in these developments.”



Making an In depth Connectivity Surroundings That Works Rapidly and Fluidly


The 2 most important telecommunication requirements for cell wi-fi communications are mobile networks and connectivity. The mobile community represented by the 3GPP normal5 refers to telecommunication requirements resembling CDMA, LTE and 5G. It supplies a variety of service coverages in sure bandwidths licensed for cell carriers and does this through the infrastructure of assorted base stations. Connectivity, alternatively, is represented by IEEE 802.11(Wi-Fi)/802.15 (Bluetooth, ZigBee, UWB6). It makes use of Trade-Science-Medical (ISM) bandwidth that can be utilized by anybody. Connectivity follows native telecommunication requirements for indoors and supplies service to all.


▲ The kinds of Wi-Fi protocols for wi-fi connection


“Mobile community” is a service with an infrastructure primarily based on mobility and is principally operated by establishing networks that cowl huge areas. Alternatively, “connectivity” supplies wi-fi entry amongst gadgets inside a brief distance with out utilizing infra-networks established by operators. This permits for the comfort of portability with out wires. Particularly, Wi-Fi boasts a sooner transmission pace extra reliably than mobile networks over comparatively lengthy distances, particularly indoors. For this reason Wi-Fi is so extensively used for connecting cell phones, laptops and so forth. Identical to peer-to-peer (P2P), Wi-Fi is best for selective and intensive telecommunication that may, when needed, facilitate excessive transmission speeds. This makes it extra applicable for next-generation IoT gadgets, resembling Augmented Actuality (AR) and Digital Actuality (VR) gadgets.


As of late, it’s arduous to even think about day by day life with out Wi-Fi. It’s straightforward to overlook that, simply 20 years in the past, Wi-Fi was not anticipated to change into probably the most commonplace wi-fi knowledge telecommunications expertise. Nevertheless, because the business expanded to smartphone-based expertise, the conclusion grew that Wi-Fi was the simplest technique of response to immediately’s knowledge site visitors explosion. Due to the decrease value of establishing and working when in comparison with mobile networks it’s a technique that’s nonetheless rising exponentially.


Not like mobile techniques utilizing infra-networks, the info hyperlink vary of a Wi-Fi community can solely be prolonged up to a couple hundred meters, so it’s emphatically native. As well as, because it makes use of unlicensed bandwidth, it may be affected by interference from different telecommunication techniques, making it dangerous for supporting superior High quality of Service (QoS).7 Nevertheless, as mobile and Wi-Fi convergence expertise advances, it continues to supply an enormous comfort: an undisrupted person expertise. All around the world, Wi-Fi has lengthy gone past being seen as a particular expertise and is as a substitute handled extra like a public infrastructure.


“Again in 2016, a devoted group was set as much as get Wi-Fi expertise to the purpose the place it might be built-in into the Exynos processor,” stated Joonsuk Kim, Government Vice President of the Connectivity Improvement Group. Kim was the group chief when the Connectivity Group was first established when becoming a member of Samsung in 2016. “In solely about 4 to 5 years, we accomplished the event of the legacy protocols all the way in which as much as the sixth era of Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi 6) by reaching technological stability and readiness. Though there was not sufficient funding or expertise, our expertise caught up in only a quick time period,” he recalled.



▲ Exynos’ Wi-Fi expertise nearing the market chief in solely six years


After its success in growing and commercializing Wi-Fi 6E, in addition to all of the earlier Wi-Fi protocols, Samsung Electronics is now growing Wi-Fi 7, which is focused for subsequent era flagship as a discrete modem. Since Wi-Fi wants to supply connection for all cell and IoT gadgets supporting the newest protocol, it’s essential that the efficiency of all legacy protocols is improved and maintained and that the efficiency of the latest protocol is equally secured. This newest protocol Wi-Fi 7 will probably be expanded to the market from 2024. It boasts the Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO),8 a channel bandwidth of 320MHz and 4096QAM.9 Via these capabilities, Wi-Fi 7 may have some great benefits of sooner knowledge transmission pace, elevated knowledge transmission quantity, improved energy effectivity and the flexibility to help undisrupted wi-fi connectivity, even in an setting the place customers abound.


▲ The dimensions of the Wi-Fi market is projected to develop from 4.7 billion in 2022 to six billion in 2027.
Supply: LANCOM (Survey Digital Coverage in Germany), TSR (June 2022)


With a purpose to additional improve the quick transmission speeds of Wi-Fi, the interior processor core must change into extra advanced than it presently is, and an inside reminiscence with a big capability is required.


“To make this occur, we’re staying targeted on analysis and improvement of multi-processor buildings, and on securing the mental properties needed for quick transmission,” Kim stated. “Till now, corporations in different nations have been the primary gamers main the event of Wi-Fi options. However the Wi-Fi expertise of Exynos is the one Wi-Fi answer in Korea that’s commercialized on a big scale. I’m assured that, in the case of embedded Wi-Fi options for cell SoC, our expertise comes second to none,” Kim stated.


That is vital, as a result of, in the case of Wi-Fi, solely the most effective is sweet sufficient for patrons. Though most individuals, on the whole, don’t understand how a lot of a sophisticated expertise Wi-Fi really is, they do count on to have the ability to entry quick, uninterrupted Wi-Fi virtually wherever they’re.


“Many customers acknowledge revolutions in mobile networks, such because the LTE and 5G, as superior applied sciences, because of their commercial as main options of telephones in cell carriers’ energetic advertising and marketing,” stated Kim. “Nevertheless, against this, individuals don’t fairly appear to acknowledge how shortly Wi-Fi expertise is evolving.”


▲EVP Joonsuk Kim has been engaged on connectivity expertise for 20 years.


Nevertheless, when requested if he thinks the position of Wi-Fi will nonetheless be vital sooner or later, Kim was firm.


“The info transmitted by way of Wi-Fi nowadays makes up 70 to 80%10 of general wi-fi knowledge site visitors,” he stated. “Mobile networks and connectivity expertise pursue completely different utilization situations and this isn’t prone to change any time quickly. Wi-Fi expertise and mobile expertise ought to advance collectively by complementing one another. Because the position of knowledge expertise (IT) turns into extra vital in our lives, the flexibility to reduce dead-zones and supply steady connections and quick knowledge companies indoors will change into crucial for Wi-Fi expertise.”



To totally faucet into future applied sciences like augmented actuality (AR), digital actuality (VR) and the metaverse, quick pace and low latency are essential.


“Wi-Fi makes use of low-frequency bandwidth, resembling 2.4GHz, 5GHz and 6GHz,” Kim defined. “So the diffraction is comparatively larger, and this permits the quick, steady transmission of information.”


As 320MHz frequency turned usable with the supply of 6GHz bandwidth, connections between gadgets with ultra-fast and low-latency might be achieved even sooner than initially anticipated. Kim emphasised the position of Wi-Fi development on this course of. On the similar time, the Connectivity Improvement Group developed and accomplished the commercialization of the newest specification (BT5.2), Bluetooth and GNSS that efficiently entered the Flagship by making use of L5 satellite tv for pc and sensor correction expertise for high-performance positioning, and just lately indoor positioning with accuracy inside a number of centimeters. Kim defined that if UWB expertise, which has been developed for measurement and is in preparation for its first industrial use, may be mixed, it may well exert sturdy energy in lots of high-spec IoT companies and functions sooner or later.


“To assist our newest merchandise lead the market normal, to safe competitiveness and sustainability sooner or later and to verify stability and compatibility are achieved nicely upfront, I personally hope that we implement wi-fi entry factors11 and enter the related product market to take action,” Kim stated.



Defending Your Privateness on Smartphone: Safety That Strengthens a Separate Safety Operation Surroundings (iSE)


Smartphones play a variety of roles nowadays. Two notably important such roles are identification playing cards and wallets. Take biometrics, cell identification (eID) and Samsung Pay, for instance. These companies typically require customers to confirm their identification, and there’s at all times the chance that hacking can happen within the technique of person verification. As such, a stage of safety that goes past the software program stage is known as for, which suggests it’s required on the {hardware} stage and even in semiconductors.


The semiconductor that gives safety in smartphones is known as the Safe Aspect (SE) semiconductor. There’s a separate embedded Safe Aspect (eSE) positioned exterior the SoC, however, with Exynos 2020, an built-in Safe Aspect (iSE) is embedded within the safety block contained in the SoC.


“The title we’ve got given to the challenge that focuses on iSE embedded in Exynos is ‘STRONG,’ which is an abbreviation of Safe Tamper-Resistant of Subsequent Era,” stated Jongwoo Lee, Vice President of the Design Platform Improvement Group. “The iSE is a separate setting throughout the SoC that operates safety applications. The iSE performs not solely the position of the eSE which may be individually embedded on the surface however it may well management the safety of the SoC as nicely. Superior processing means it boasts excessive efficiency, and it additionally permits secure growth to exterior reminiscence, resembling DRAM and Flash. These many roles may be taken even additional and shield the SoC within the energetic safety module.”


▲ (From left) Keunyoung Park from the AP S/W Improvement Group, VP Jongwoo Lee, PL Bogyeong Kang and Sunghyun Kim from the Design Platform Improvement Group are doing their utmost to strengthen the safety setting in cell gadgets.


The iSE is used for gadget safety and safety companies. Gadget safety is concentrated on strengthening the safety of the gadget itself, and safety companies are targeted on the knowledge of customers that’s held inside cell gadgets, like cell identification, cost and automotive keys.


“At first of this 12 months, we completed the PoC (Proof of Idea) and succeeded in growing the iSIM,12 probably the most relevant service utilizing iSE,” Lee stated. “This was a results of shut cooperation between Samsung Analysis, which is in control of the iSE Safe OS (Camelia), and the digital safety firm Thales, which is in cost of growing the iSIM Utility.”


The iSIM is an upgraded model of the embedded SIM (eSIM) and it integrates the perform of the SIM throughout the SoC. This supplies comfort for customers as a result of it permits them to alter their cell provider with out altering their SIM card, have greater than two cellphone numbers without delay and make use of assorted cell provider companies on one gadget. From the angle of smartphone producers, the iSIM supplies benefits as nicely, as a result of it lets them take away the SIM card slot and scale back the area wanted for components: iSIM may be operated throughout the SoC with out a separate semiconductor, as is the case with discrete eSIM.


▲uSIM, eSIM and iSIM measurement comparability


What makes the event of the iSIM so important is the acute problem builders encounter in assembly the technological setting necessities for embedding iSIM.


“The iSIM wants to fulfill International System for Cellular Communications (GSMA) necessities,” stated Lee. “Which means embedding the iSIM over the OS software program and {hardware} above a sure safety stage, a stage known as CC EAL4+.13 Nevertheless, we’ve got {hardware} that operates one stage larger than this guideline: CC EAL5+. We even have safe exterior reminiscence the place massive SIM profiles may be embedded.”



“We’re the one firm that may present each the eSE and iSE, that are the idea for the eSIM and iSIM,” Lee continued. “So we will present options that smartphone producers can simply and flexibly undertake. Personally, I imagine there is no such thing as a such factor as ‘excellent’ within the space of safety, however we’re working arduous to get as near excellent as is technologically attainable. Our groups will proceed to make fixed effort in offering a high-level safety operation setting that may accommodate the various completely different safety features completely different platforms present.”



1 Digital communication: A technique of changing an analog sign right into a digital sign, transmitting it to the opposite social gathering and changing it again into an analog sign that may be acknowledged by people. Excessive-quality and large-capacity communication are attainable in comparison with analog communication.

2 Cellular broadband: A expertise that gives high-speed multimedia Web companies to cell gadgets resembling smartphones and pill PCs.

3 New Radio (NR): A 5th era cell communication expertise. Consists of sub-6 GHz and mmWave (millimeter wave, excessive frequency band of 24-100 GHz band). Though mmWave has some great benefits of ultra-high pace, ultra-low latency and super-connectivity, it has the drawback of poor diffraction.

4 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): An American affiliation {of electrical} and digital engineers and the world’s largest technical group.

5 3rd Era Partnership Undertaking (3GPP): A cell communication standardization expertise cooperation group based in December 1998 to determine worldwide requirements associated to wi-fi communication, resembling GSM, WCDMA, GPRS and LTE.

6 Extremely-Wideband (UWB): A way that lowers most transmit energy to lower than -41.3 dBm/MHz in order to not interrupt different wi-fi. Nevertheless, it makes use of huge bandwidth (500MHz) to realize comparably excessive knowledge charges.

7 High quality of Service (QoS): This refers back to the assure of communication service high quality, delay time or knowledge loss price under a sure stage on the community. It additionally refers to a communication service stage agreed or outlined upfront. In different phrases, it’s a generic time period for numerous applied sciences that intelligently match the transmission demand of assorted functions to a given community useful resource by allocating community assets resembling bandwidth and precedence with the intention to ship knowledge to a vacation spot shortly, at a continuing pace and reliably.

8 Multi-Hyperlink Operation (MLO): The expertise that operates numerous channels of various frequency bandwidths on the similar time.

9 4096 QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation): A modulation technique for transmitting knowledge by shifting and adjusting the amplitude and section of the in-phase provider sign and quadrature-phase provider sign. It’s advantageous when a considerable amount of knowledge must be transmitted in a slender transmission bandwidth. 12bits per image in a 4096QAM

10 Supply: February 22, 2019

11 Wi-fi Entry Level: The low-power wi-fi gadget that performs the position of a base station in wi-fi LAN. It’s also known as a Wi-Fi extender, Wi-Fi amplifier or wi-fi extender.

12 iSIM (built-in SIM): A built-in subscriber identification module. Additionally known as ieUICC (built-in embedded common built-in circuit card)

13 Widespread Standards Analysis Assurance Stage (CC EAL): Widespread Standards (CC) is a world normal for evaluating the safety of IT merchandise and sure web sites. Analysis Assurance Stage (EAL) is a grade that’s assigned to analysis assurance.